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Regional Distributions

Want to know what states belong to each regional label used in DARE? Or to what regions your state belongs? Take a look at our updated versions of the maps from Volume I or use the two lists for more detailed information.

A List of Regions Used in DARE and the States Occurring in These Regions

This list of regions used in DARE defines which states or parts of states are contained in each region. It appeared in the first volume of DARE in the front matter, p. xxxii; here it has been updated and expanded.

Allegheny Mountains (Allegheny Mts): nwMD, cPA, wVA, eWV
Appalachians: neAL, nGA, eKY, wMD, wNC, cPA, wSC, eTN, wVA, WV
Atlantic: CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, SC, VA, VT
Central (Cent): AR, KS, MO, NE, OK
Central Atlantic (C Atl): DC, DE, eMD, sNJ, ePA, eVA
Chesapeake Bay: c,eMD, eVA
Delmarva: DE, eMD, eVA
Desert Southwest (Desert SW): AZ, seCA, NM
Great Lakes (Gt Lakes): nIL, nIN, MI, MN, nwNY, nOH, nwPA, WI
Gulf States: AL, FL, LA, MS, eTX
Inland North (Inland Nth): Nth except NEng
Inland South (Inland Sth): AL, KY, MS, TN
Lower Mississippi Valley (Lower Missip Valley): AR, sIL, wKY, LA, sMO, MS, wTN
Middle Atlantic (Mid Atl): DC, MD, NC, SC, VA
Midland (Midl): N Midl, S Midl
Mississippi-Ohio Valleys (Missip-Ohio Valleys): IA, IL, IN, KY, MN, MO, OH, WI
Mississippi Valley (Missip Valley): AR, IA, IL, wKY, LA, MN, MO, MS, wTN, WI
New England (NEng): CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT (eNEng = east of Connecticut River; wNEng = west of Connecticut River)
North (Nth): NEng, nIA, nID, nIL, nIN, MI, MN, MT, ND, nNJ, NY, nOH, OR, nPA, nSD, WA, WI, nWY
North Atlantic (N Atl): NEng, nNJ, seNY
North Central (N Cent): IL, IN, KY, MI, OH, WI
Northeast (NEast): NEng, NJ, NY, nPA
North Midland (N Midl): nDE, c,sIA, cIL, cIN, nMD, nMO, NE, sNJ, cOH, c,sPA, sSD, nWV
Northwest (NW): ID, OR, WA, (MT, WY)
Ohio Valley: sIL, sIN, KY, eMO, sOH
Okefenokee: neFL, seGA
Ozarks: nwAR, swMO, neOK
Pacific: CA, OR, WA
Pacific Northwest (Pacific NW): nCA, OR, WA
Plains States: eCO, KS, NE
Rocky Mountains (Rocky Mts): wCO, ID, MT, NV, UT, WY
Smoky Mountains (Smoky Mts): cwNC, ceTN
South (Sth): c,sAL, DC, FL, c,sGA, c,sLA, e,sMD, c,sMS, c,eNC, c,eSC, eTX, eVA
South Atlantic (S Atl): FL, GA, NC, SC
Southeast (SE): S Atl, AL, MS, TN
South Midland (S Midl): nAL, AR, sDE, nGA, sIL, sIN, KY, nLA, cMD, c,sMO, nMS, wNC, sOH, neOK, wSC, TN, wVA, sWV
Southwest (SW): AZ, sCA, NM, OK, TX
Upper Midwest (Upper MW): IA, MN, NE, ND, SD
Upper Mississippi Valley (Upper Missip Valley): IA, c,nIL, MN, nMO, WI
Upstate New York (Upstate NY): all NY except NYC metropolitan area
West (=west of 100th parallel): wKS, wND, wNE, wOK, wSD, wTX, and all points west
West Midland (W Midl): Midl except DE, MD, sNJ, c,sPA

A List of States and the Regions in Which They Occur

Because states belong to larger regions, a comprehensive picture of regional speech in a particular state requires consulting the Index under its headings of regions as well. Thus the reader looking for words used in Arizona, for example, should also look under Desert Southwest, Southwest, and West. Obviously, the larger the region, the less likely that the words listed under the region would show strong evidence of usage in the state in question; indeed, there may be no evidence of actual usage from the state. Under Irish buggy and Mexican bean 1, for example, both listed as chiefly West, there is no information at all from Arizona, whereas jerky n2, listed as scattered, but esp West, shows heavy usage in Arizona.

The following list gives the state name, followed by all regions which include that state.

Alabama (AL): Appalachians, Gulf States, Inland South, Midland, Southeast, South Midland, South, West Midland
Alaska (AK): (None)
Arizona (AZ): Desert Southwest, Southwest, West
Arkansas (AR): Central, Lower Mississippi Valley, Midland, Mississippi Valley, Ozarks, South Midland, West Midland
California (CA): Desert Southwest, Pacific, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, West
Colorado (CO): Plains States, Rocky Mountains, West
Connecticut (CT): Atlantic, North Atlantic, Northeast, New England, North
Delaware (DE): Atlantic, Central Atlantic, Delmarva, Midland, North Midland, South Midland
District of Columbia: See Washington, DC
Florida (FL): Atlantic, Gulf States, Okefenokee, South Atlantic, Southeast, South
Georgia (GA): Appalachians, Atlantic, Midland, Okefenokee, South Atlantic, Southeast, South Midland, South, West Midland
Hawaii (HI): (None)
Idaho (ID): Inland North, North, Northwest, Rocky Mountains, West
Illinois (IL): Great Lakes, Inland North, Lower Mississippi Valley, Midland, Mississippi-Ohio Valleys, Mississippi Valley, North Central, North Midland, North, Ohio Valley, South Midland, Upper Mississippi Valley, West Midland
Indiana (IN): Great Lakes, Inland North, Midland, Mississippi-Ohio Valleys, North Central, North Midland, North, Ohio Valley, South Midland, West Midland
Iowa (IA): Inland North, Midland, Mississippi-Ohio Valleys, Mississippi Valley, North Midland, North, Upper Midwest, Upper Mississippi Valley, West Midland
Kansas (KS): Central, Plains States, West
Kentucky (KY): Appalachians, Inland South, Lower Mississippi Valley, Midland, Mississippi-Ohio Valleys, Mississippi Valley, North Central, Ohio Valley, South Midland, West Midland
Louisiana (LA): Gulf States, Lower Mississippi Valley, Midland, Mississippi Valley, South Midland, South, West Midland
Maine (ME): Atlantic, North Atlantic, Northeast, New England, North
Maryland (MD): Allegheny Mountains, Appalachians, Atlantic, Central Atlantic, Chesapeake Bay, Delmarva, Middle Atlantic, Midland, North Midland, South Midland, South
Massachusetts (MA): Atlantic, North Atlantic, Northeast, New England, North
Michigan (MI): Great Lakes, Inland North, North Central, North
Minnesota (MN): Great Lakes, Inland North, Mississippi-Ohio Valleys, Mississippi Valley, North, Upper Midwest, Upper Mississippi Valley
Mississippi (MS): Gulf States, Inland South, Lower Mississippi Valley, Midland, Mississippi Valley, Southeast, South Midland, South, West Midland
Missouri (MO): Central, Lower Mississippi Valley, Midland, Mississippi-Ohio Valleys, Mississippi Valley, North Midland, Ohio Valley, Ozarks, South Midland, Upper Mississippi Valley, West Midland
Montana (MT): Inland North, North, Northwest, Rocky Mountains, West
Nebraska (NE): Central, Midland, North Midland, Plains States, Upper Midwest, West, West Midland
Nevada (NV): Rocky Mountains, West
New Hampshire (NH): Atlantic, North Atlantic, Northeast, New England, North
New Jersey (NJ): Atlantic, Central Atlantic, Inland North, Midland, North Atlantic, Northeast, North Midland, North
New Mexico (NM): Desert Southwest, Southwest, West
New York (NY): Atlantic, Great Lakes, Inland North, North Atlantic, Northeast, North, Upstate NY
North Carolina (NC): Appalachians, Atlantic, Middle Atlantic, Midland, South Atlantic, Southeast, South Midland, Smoky Mountains, South, West Midland
North Dakota (ND): Inland North, North, Upper Midwest, West
Ohio (OH): Great Lakes, Inland North, Midland, Mississippi-Ohio Valleys, North Central, North Midland, North, Ohio Valley, South Midland, West Midland
Oklahoma (OK): Central, Midland, Ozarks, South Midland, Southwest, West, West Midland
Oregon (OR): Inland North, North, Northwest, Pacific, Pacific Northwest, West
Pennsylvania (PA): Allegheny Mountains, Appalachians, Atlantic, Central Atlantic, Great Lakes, Inland North, Midland, Northeast, North Midland, North
Rhode Island (RI): Atlantic, North Atlantic, Northeast, New England, North
South Carolina (SC): Appalachians, Atlantic, Middle Atlantic, Midland, South Atlantic, Southeast, South Midland, South, West Midland
South Dakota (SD): Inland North, Midland, North Midland, North, Upper Midwest, West, West Midland
Tennessee (TN): Appalachians, Inland South, Lower Mississippi Valley, Midland, Mississippi Valley, Southeast, South Midland, Smoky Mountains, West Midland
Texas (TX): Gulf States, South, Southwest, West
Utah (UT): Rocky Mountains, West
Vermont (VT): Atlantic, North Atlantic, Northeast, New England, North
Virginia (VA): Allegheny Mountains, Appalachians, Atlantic, Central Atlantic, Chesapeake Bay, Delmarva, Middle Atlantic, Midland, South Midland, South, West Midland
Washington (WA): Inland North, North, Northwest, Pacific, Pacific Northwest, West
Washington, DC (DC): Atlantic, Central Atlantic, Middle Atlantic, South, South Midland
West Virginia (WV): Allegheny Mountains, Appalachians, Midland, North Midland, South Midland, West Midland
Wisconsin (WI): Great Lakes, Inland North, Mississippi-Ohio Valleys, Mississippi Valley, North Central, North, Upper Mississippi Valley
Wyoming (WY): Inland North, North, Northwest, Rocky Mountains, West

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